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The absolute values of the deviation scores should be used \wTS&Measures of Dispersion(The Variance)"'& 'DThe variance is another very useful measure of the level of dispersion or variability in a set of values The variance is computed by squaring the deviation scores, summing them all up, and then dividing by the sample size minus one The larger the value of the variance, the larger is the distance from the arithmetic mean EED0Measures of Dispersion(The Standard Deviation):1 1The standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance and is considered a very accurate measure of variation or dispersion in a set of values The standard deviation is preferred by business researchers over the variance If the set of values is based on a sample, it is important to note that the standard deviation of the sample may differ from the standard deviation of the whole population Fieldwork (1)7The gathering of data by individuals, such as, personal or telephone interviewers and observers is, broadly speaking, referred to as fiedwork The selection of fieldworkers with adequate training and experience is essential the success of the research project A research study is only as good as the data input 8P88 Fieldwork (2)@There are organizations to whom the task of gathering data and information can be outsourced, which are refffered to as field interviewing services Such organizations gather data (e.g. through personal and telephone interviews or observation) for a fee, and they may also offer training and supervision services and selecting fieldworkers It is important for fieldworkers to have certain characteristics when gathering data, for e.g., being well-dressed and well-groomed, pleasant in disposition, outgoing, keen to interact with strangers !d!!Training FieldworkersBriefing Session (provides all interviewers with identical background information about the project Training Interview (a practice session in which an inexperienced fieldworker records answers on a questionnaire to develop his or her skills, and clarify the requirements of the research project in question) The purpose of the briefing session and training interview is to ensure that data is gathered by the fieldworkers in a uniform manner d%Major Themes in Training Fieldworkers&& &Making initial contact with the respondent and securing the interview Asking survey questions Probing Recording Responses Terminating the interview" xMaking Initial ContactPolite introduction Try to convince the person being interviewed that cooperation is important Use of ID cards Avoid using certain words which give the respondent a means of quickly ending the interview (e.g.: may I ...) Do not be too aggressiveAsking Survey QuestionsQuestions must be asked in a manner that avoids interviewer bias Asking questions must take 5 major principles into consideration, i.e.: ask the questions exactly as they are worded in the questionnaire, read each question very slowly, ask the questions in the order in which they are presented in the questionnaire, ask every question specified in the questionnaire and repeat questions that are easily misunderstood or misinterpretedPZZ/Z/ProbingProbing is about verbal prompts by the fieldworker or interviewer when the respondent must be motivated to communicate his or her answer or to enlarge on, clarify, or explain an answer Interviewers must try to ensure that answers provided by the respondents are complete and unambiguous and they must ensure that the respondent does not lose track of the questions they are asked Interviewers must ensure that they do not influence the respondents when probing Z$ ` 33` Sf3f` 33g` f` www3PP` ZXdbmo` \ғ3y`Ӣ` 3f3ff` 3f3FKf` hk]wwwfܹ` ff>>\`Y{ff` R>&- {p_/̴>?" dd@,|?" dd@ " @ ` n?" dd@ @@``PR @ ` `p>> K0>6( 6tť `} T Click to edit Master title style! ! 0ȥ ` RClick to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level! 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METHODOLOGY(Business Research Methods)*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (1)++ + Descriptive statistics The branch of statistics which describes or summarizes information about a population or sample Examples: The number of employees with MBA degrees in an organization The number of students who failed to qualify their final examination at CIITbz*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (2)++ +~ Inferential statistics The branch of statistics which is used to make inferences or judgments about a population on the basis of a sample Examples: The demand for a new Product X based on a sample conducted in Region Y The general election result based on a representative survey of voters in electoral district Zb@Statistical Data AnalysisCollecting data on the basis of surveys and questionnaires is the first step towards interpreting and utilizing the data for decision-making After data has been collected, it must be organized and analysed using various statistical tools and techniques JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (absolute distribution))"K 1KA frequency distribution (or frequency table) is a set of data which records the number of times a particular vlaue of a variable, or range of values of a variable, occurs Example: JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (relative distribution))"K 1KProportions * Proportions are the percentage of popluation elemts that succesfully fulfill some specific criteria Examples: The proportion of CIIT Management Science students who are in the evening programme The proportion of jeweller shops in Islamabad who have an annual revenue exceeding 50 million RupeesXeq+Measures of Central Tendency `The purpose of measures of central tendency is to determine the average value in a set of values There are three measures of central tendency: (Arithmetic) Mean Medi !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxz{|}~Root EntrydO)PvG{@Picturesy2Current User)SummaryInformation(y4UOPowerPoint Document(XQDocumentSummaryInformation80z[ 0" B. @n?" dd@ @@`` %$&' r5/XR$1K`A8 U!R$C©f*nq!0AA wK鼹@;kʚ;ʚ;g4@d@d z[ 0Lppp<4ddddL 0w<4BdBdL< 00___PPT10 ___PPT9|t((& &?-O =7RESEARCH METHODOLOGY(Business Research Methods)*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (1)++ + Descriptive statistics The branch of statistics which describes or summarizes information about a population or sample Examples: The number of employees with MBA degrees in an organization The number of students who failed to qualify their final examination at CIITbz*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (2)++ +~ Inferential statistics The branch of statistics which is used to make inferences or judgments about a population on the basis of a sample Examples: The demand for a new Product X based on a sample conducted in Region Y The general election result based on a representative survey of voters in electoral district Zb@Statistical Data AnalysisCollecting data on the basis of surveys and questionnaires is the first step towards interpreting and utilizing the data for decision-making After data has been collected, it must be organized and analysed using various statistical tools and techniques JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (absolute distribution))"K 1KA frequency distribution (or frequency table) is a set of data which records the number of times a particular vlaue of a variable, or range of values of a variable, occurs Example: JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (relative distribution))"K 1KProportions * Proportions are the percentage of popluation elemts that succesfully fulfill some specific criteria Examples: The proportion of CIIT Management Science students who are in the evening programme The proportion of jeweller shops in Islamabad who have an annual revenue exceeding 50 million RupeesXeq+Measures of Central Tendency `The purpose of measures of central tendency is to determine the average value in a set of values There are three measures of central tendency: (Arithmetic) Mean Median ModeJ .Measures of Central Tendency(Arithmetic Mean)"/ /JThe arithmetic mean is the average of all the values under consideration >JJJ %Measures of Central Tendency(Median)"& &NThe Median is the midpoint of the distribution of values under consideration >NNN#Measures of Central Tendency(Mode)"$ $eThe Mode is the value that occurs most frequently in the distribution of values under consideration >eeeMeasures of Dispersion" Measures of dispersion provide an indication of the tendency of value to depart from their central tendency Two sets of values may have the same central tendency, but their dispersion may differ significantly See example table 17.5 on page 407 of the text book > #Measures of Dispersion(The Range)"$# $The Range is the simplest measure of dispersion of values and is defind as the distance between the smallest and the highest value (i.e. the extreme values) in a frequency distribution Refer again to table 17.5 on page 407 of your text book for an example See the deviation score (the distance of a value from the arithmetic mean, e.g. deviation score = 500 750 = - 250) The deviation score is used as the basis of computing the average deviation which is simply the summation of all deviation scores divided by the sample size. The absolute values of the deviation scores should be used \wTS&Measures of Dispersion(The Variance)"'& 'DThe variance is another very useful measure of the level of dispersion or variability in a set of values The variance is computed by squaring the deviation scores, summing them all up, and then dividing by the sample size minus one The larger the value of the variance, the larger is the distance from the arithmetic mean EED0Measures of Dispersion(The Standard Deviation):1 1The standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance and is considered a very accurate measure of variation or dispersion in a set of values The standard deviation is preferred by business researchers over the variance If the set of values is based on a sample, it is important to note that the standard deviation of the sample may differ from the standard deviation of the whole population Fieldwork (1)7The gathering of data by individuals, such as, personal or telephone interviewers and observers is, broadly speaking, referred to as fiedwork The selection of fieldworkers with adequate training and experience is essential the success of the research project A research study is only as good as the data input 8P88 Fieldwork (2)@There are organizations to whom the task of gathering data and information can be outsourced, which are refffered to as field interviewing services Such organizations gather data (e.g. through personal and telephone interviews or observation) for a fee, and they may also offer training and supervision services and selecting fieldworkers It is important for fieldworkers to have certain characteristics when gathering data, for e.g., being well-dressed and well-groomed, pleasant in disposition, outgoing, keen to interact with strangers !d!!Training FieldworkersBriefing Session (provides all interviewers with identical background information about the project Training Interview (a practice session in which an inexperienced fieldworker records answers on a questionnaire to develop his or her skills, and clarify the requirements of the research project in question) The purpose of the briefing session and training interview is to ensure that data is gathered by the fieldworkers in a uniform manner d%Major Themes in Training Fieldworkers&& &Making initial contact with the respondent and securing the interview Asking survey questions Probing Recording Responses Terminating the interview" xMaking Initial ContactPolite introduction Try to convince the person being interviewed that cooperation is important Use of ID cards Avoid using certain words which give the respondent a means of quickly ending the interview (e.g.: may I ...) Do not be too aggressiveAsking Survey QuestionsQuestions must be asked in a manner that avoids interviewer bias Asking questions must take 5 major principles into consideration, i.e.: ask the questions exactly as they are worded in the questionnaire, read each question very slowly, ask the questions in the order in which they are presented in the questionnaire, ask every question specified in the questionnaire and repeat questions that are easily misunderstood or misinterpretedPZZ/Z/ProbingProbing is about verbal prompts by the fieldworker or interviewer when the respondent must be motivated to communicate his or her answer or to enlarge on, clarify, or explain an answer Interviewers must try to ensure that answers provided by the respondents are complete and unambiguous and they must ensure that the respondent does not lose track of the questions they are asked Interviewers must ensure that they do not influence the respondents when probing (neutrality) ZRecording ResponsesAll fieldworkers should use the same procedure for recording responses In case of open-ended questions, responses should be recorded in the respondent s own words (no summarizing or paraphrasing) and should include an indication as to whether probing was required ZTerminating the InterviewInterview should not be terminated before all the information has been gathered from the respondent Hasty departure by the interviewer should be avoided because sometimes after formal interviewing, the respondents may offer valuable information. Moreover, a hasty departure is considered impolite and the respondent may have to be reinterviewed Interviewers should have the courtesy to answer questions which the respondent may have after the interview ,ZZ< K0$( r S `} r SL ` H 0h ? 3380___PPT10.Sy< K0$( r Sb `} r SP̺ ` H 0h ? 3380___PPT10.yֳ< K0$( r S `} r S@ ` H 0h ? 3380___PPT10. tmr0R ? ¼dK( !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw՜.+,0 jOn-screen ShowCIITreeXQA Arial WingdingsVerdana RefDefault DesignRESEARCH METHODOLOGY+Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (1)+Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (2)Statistical Data AnalysisKStatistical Data Analysis (Frequency Distribution (absolute distribution))KStatistical Data Analysis (Frequency Distribution (relative distribution)) Proportions Measures of Central Tendency/Measures of Central Tendency (Arithmetic Mean)&Measures of Central Tendency (Median)$Measures of Central Tendency (Mode)Measures of Dispersion $Measures of Dispersion (The Range) 'Measures of Dispersion (The Variance) 1Measures of Dispersion (The Stan an ModeJ .Measures of Central Tendency(Arithmetic Mean)"/ /JThe arithmetic mean is the average of all the values under consideration >JJJ %Measures of Central Tendency(Median)"& &NThe Median is the midpoint of the distribution of values under consideration >NNN#Measures of Central Tendency(Mode)"$ $eThe Mode is the value that occurs most frequently in the distribution of values under consideration >eeeMeasures of Dispersion" Measures of dispersion provide an indication of the tendency of value to depart from their central tendency Two sets of values may have the same central tendency, but their dispersion may differ significantly See example table 17.5 on page 407 of the text book > #Measures of Dispersion(The Range)"$# $The Range is the simplest measure of dispersion of values and is defind as the distance between the smallest and the highest value (i.e. the extreme values) in a frequency distribution Refer again to table 17.5 on page 407 of your text book for an example See the deviation score (the distance of a value from the arithmetic mean, e.g. deviation score = 500 750 = - 250) The deviation score is used as the basis of computing the average deviation which is simply the summation of all deviation scores divided by the sample size. The absolute values of the deviation scores should be used \wTS&Measures of Dispersion(The Variance)"'& 'DThe variance is another very useful measure of the level of dispersion or variability in a set of values The variance is computed by squaring the deviation scores, summing them all up, and then dividing by the sample size minus one The larger the value of the variance, the larger is the distance from the arithmetic mean EED0Measures of Dispersion(The Standard Deviation):1 1The standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance and is considered a very accurate measure of variation or dispersion in a set of values The standard deviation is preferred by business researchers over the variance If the set of values is based on a sample, it is important to note that the standard deviation of the sample may differ from the standard deviation of the whole population Fieldwork (1)7The gathering of data by individuals, such as, personal or telephone interviewers and observers is, broadly speaking, referred to as fiedwork The selection of fieldworkers with adequate training and experience is essential the success of the research project A research study is only as good as the data input 8P88 Fieldwork (2)@There are organizations to whom the task of gathering data and information can be outsourced, which are refffered to as field interviewing services Such organizations gather data (e.g. through personal and telephone interviews or observation) for a fee, and they may also offer training and supervision services and selecting fieldworkers It is important for fieldworkers to have certain characteristics when gathering data, for e.g., being well-dressed and well-groomed, pleasant in disposition, outgoing, keen to interact with strangers !d!!Training FieldworkersBriefing Session (provides all interviewers with identical background information about the project Training Interview (a practice session in which an inexperienced fieldworker records answers on a questionnaire to develop his or her skills, and clarify the requirements of the research project in question) The purpose of the briefing session and training interview is to ensure that data is gathered by the fieldworkers in a uniform manner d%Major Themes in Training Fieldworkers&& &Making initial contact with the respondent and securing the interview Asking survey questions Probing Recording Responses Terminating the interview" xMaking Initial ContactPolite introduction Try to convince the person being interviewed that cooperation is important Use of ID cards Avoid using certain words which give the respondent a means of quickly ending the interview (e.g.: may I ...) Do not be too aggressiveAsking Survey QuestionsQuestions must be asked in a manner that avoids interviewer bias Asking questions must take 5 major principles into consideration, i.e.: ask the questions exactly as they are worded in the questionnaire, read each question very slowly, ask the questions in the order in which they are presented in the questionnaire, ask every question specified in the questionnaire and repeat questions that are easily misunderstood or misinterpretedPZZ/Z/ProbingProbing is about verbal prompts by the fieldworker or interviewer when the respondent must be motivated to communicate his or her answer or to enlarge on, clarify, or explain an answer Interviewers must try to ensure that answers provided by the respondents are complete and unambiguous and they must ensure that the respondent does not lose track of the questions they are asked Interviewers must ensure that they do not influence the respondents when probing (neutrality) ZRecording ResponsesAll fieldworkers should use the same procedure for recording responses In case of open-ended questions, responses should be recorded in the respondent s own words (no summarizing or paraphrasing) and should include an indication as to whether probing was required ZTerminating the InterviewInterview should not be terminated before all the information has been gathered from the respondent Hasty departure by the interviewer should be avoided because sometimes after formal interviewing, the respondents may offer valuable information. Moreover, a hasty departure is considered impolite and the respondent may have to be reinterviewed Interviewers should have the courtesy to answer questions which the respondent may have after the interview ,ZZ/Principles of Good Interviewing The Basics (1)00 0Integrity and honesty (for interviewers) Patience and tactfulness (in dealing with respondents) Accuracy and detail (record responses that are understood, clarify and ask respondents for detailed answers if necessary, and record answers verbatim) Impartiality (keep your opinions to yourself and remain neutral) Listen more, talk less (respondents are expected to provide the information) Maintain confidentiality and privacy (do not disclose information on respondents to anyone else) Be respectful of the rights of respondents ,ZZ< K0$( r SHjiP ` i r Smi `i H 0h ? 3380___PPT10.PrV? 2YdTM( /0DAriala Rew0dard Deviation) Fieldwork (1)Fieldwork (2)Training Fieldworkers&Major Themes in Training FieldworkersMaking Initial ContactAsking Survey QuestionsProbingRecording ResponsesTerminating the Interview,Principles of Good Interviewing The Basics8Principles of Good Interviewing Required Practices (1)8Principles of Good Interviewin_4QFSCFSCtg Required Practices (2)Fonts Usedz[ 0"DWingdingsw0z[ 0 DVerdana Refw0z[ 0" B. @n?" dd@ @@`` %$&' r5/XR$1K`A8 U!R$C©f*nq!0AA wK鼹@;keʚ;ʚ;g4@d@d z[ 0Lppp<4ddddL 0w<4BdBdL< 0&0___PPT10 ___PPT9((& &?-O =<RESEARCH METHODOLOGY(Business Research Methods)*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (1)++ + Descriptive statistics The branch of statistics which describes or summarizes information about a population or sample Examples: The number of employees with MBA degrees in an organization The number of students who failed to qualify their final examination at CIITbz*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (2)++ +~ Inferential statistics The branch of statistics which is used to make inferences or judgments about a population on the basis of a sample Examples: The demand for a new Product X based on a sample conducted in Region Y The general election result based on a representative survey of voters in electoral district Zb@Statistical Data AnalysisCollecting data on the basis of surveys and questionnaires is the first step towards interpreting and utilizing the data for decision-making After data has been collected, it must be organized and analysed using various statistical tools and techniques JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (absolute distribution))"K 1KA frequency distribution (or frequency table) is a set of data which records the number of times a particular vlaue of a variable, or range of values of a variable, occurs Example: JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (relative distribution))"K 1KProportions * Proportions are the percentage of popluation elemts that succesfully fulfill some specific criteria Examples: The proportion of CIIT Management Science students who are in the evening programme The proportion of jeweller shops in Islamabad who have an annual revenue exceeding 50 million RupeesXeq+Measures of Central Tendency `The purpose of measures of central tendency is to determine the average value in a set of values There are three measures of central tendency: (Arithmetic) Mean Median ModeJ .Measures of Central Tendency(Arithmetic Mean)"/ /JThe arithmetic mean is the average of all the values under consideration >JJJ %Measures of Central Tendency(Median)"& &NThe Median is the midpoint of the distribution of values under consideration >NNN#Measures of Central Tendency(Mode)"$ $eThe Mode is the value that occurs most frequently in the distribution of values under consideration >eeeMeasures of Dispersion" Measures of dispersion provide an indication of the tendency of value to depart from their central tendency Two sets of values may have the same central tendency, but their dispersion may differ significantly See example table 17.5 on page 407 of the text book > #Measures of Dispersion(The Range)"$# $The Range is the simplest measure of dispersion of values and is defind as the distance between the smallest and the highest value (i.e. the extreme values) in a frequency distribution Refer again to table 17.5 on page 407 of your text book for an example See the deviation score (the distance of a value from the arithmetic mean, e.g. deviation score = 500 750 = - 250) The deviation score is used as the basis of computing the average deviation which is simply the summation of all deviation scores divided by the sample size. The absolute values of the deviation scores should be used \wTS&Measures of Dispersion(The Variance)"'& 'DThe variance is another very useful measure of the level of dispersion or variability in a set of values The variance is computed by squaring the deviation scores, summing them all up, and then dividing by the sample size minus one The larger the value of the variance, the larger is the distance from the arithmetic mean EED0Measures of Dispersion(The Standard Deviation):1 1The standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance and is considered a very accurate measure of variation or dispersion in a set of values The standard deviation is preferred by business researchers over the variance If the set of values is based on a sample, it is important to note that the standard deviation of the sample may differ from the standard deviation of the whole population Fieldwork (1)7The gathering of data by individuals, such as, personal or telephone interviewers and observers is, broadly speaking, referred to as fiedwork The selection of fieldworkers with adequate training and experience is essential the success of the research project A research study is only as good as the data input 8P88 Fieldwork (2)@There are organizations to whom the task of gathering data and information can be outsourced, which are refffered to as field interviewing services Such organizations gather data (e.g. through personal and telephone interviews or observation) for a fee, and they may also offer training and supervision services and selecting fieldworkers It is important for fieldworkers to have certain characteristics when gathering data, for e.g., being well-dressed and well-groomed, pleasant in disposition, outgoing, keen to interact with strangers !d!!Training FieldworkersBriefing Session (provides all interviewers with identical background information about the project Training Interview (a practice session in which an inexperienced fieldworker records answers on a questionnaire to develop his or her skills, and clarify the requirements of the research project in question) The purpose of the briefing session and training interview is to ensure that data is gathered by the fieldworkers in a uniform manner d%Major Themes in Training Fieldworkers&& &Making initial contact with the respondent and securing the interview Asking survey questions Probing Recording Responses Terminating the interview" xMaking Initial ContactPolite introduction Try to convince the person being interviewed that cooperation is important Use of ID cards Avoid using certain words which give the respondent a means of quickly ending the interview (e.g.: may I ...) Do not be too aggressiveAsking Survey QuestionsQuestions must be asked in a manner that avoids interviewer bias Asking questions must take 5 major principles into consideration, i.e.: ask the questions exactly as they are worded in the questionnaire, read each question very slowly, ask the questions in the order in which they are presented in the questionnaire, ask every question specified in the questionnaire and repeat questions that are easily misunderstood or misinterpretedPZZ/Z/ProbingProbing is about verbal prompts by the fieldworker or interviewer when the respondent must be motivated to communicate his or her answer or to enlarge on, clarify, or explain an answer Interviewers must try to ensure that answers provided by the respondents are complete and unambiguous and they must ensure that the respondent does not lose track of the questions they are asked Interviewers must ensure that they do not influence the respondents when probing (neutrality) ZRecording ResponsesAll fieldworkers should use the same procedure for recording responses In case of open-ended questions, responses should be recorded in the respondent s own words (no summarizing or paraphrasing) and should include an indication as to whether probing was required ZTerminating the InterviewInterview should not be terminated before all the information has been gathered from the respondent Hasty departure by the interviewer should be avoided because sometimes after formal interviewing, the respondents may offer valuable information. Moreover, a hasty departure is considered impolite and the respondent may have to be reinterviewed Interviewers should have the courtesy to answer questions which the respondent may have after the interview ,ZZ+Principles of Good Interviewing The Basics,, ,Integrity and honesty (for interviewers) Patience and tactfulness (in dealing with respondents) Accuracy and detail (record responses that are understood, clarify and ask respondents for detailed answers if necessary, and record answers verbatim) Impartiality (keep your opinions to yourself and remain neutral) Listen more, talk less (respondents are expected to provide the information) Maintain confidentiality and privacy (do not disclose information on respondents to anyone else) Be respectful of the rights of respondents ,ZZ3Principles of Good Interviewing Required Practices44 4)Complete the number of interviews according to the assigned sampling plan Follow the directions given to you Keep your schedules Keep control of the interview (no deviation to other subjects, avoid talking too much, keep time in mind) Complete the questionnaires and follw the prescribed sequence ,)iZ**< K0$( r SHjiP ` i r Smi `i H 0h ? 3380___PPT10.PH K00( x c$HiP ` i x c$(=`i H 0h ? 3380___PPT10.PrnY ʦ? JY^dKP( /0DAriala Rew0z[ 0"DWingdingsw0z[ 0 DVerdana Refw0z[ 0" B. @n?" dd@ @@`` %$&' r5/XR$1K`A8 U!R$C©f*nq!0AA wK鼹@;kʚ;ʚ;g4@d@d z[ 0Lppp<4ddddL 0w<4BdBdL< 0L0___PPT10 ___PPT9((& &?-O =n?RESEARCH METHODOLOGY(Business Research Methods)*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (1)++ + Descriptive statistics The branch of statistics which describes or summarizes information about a population or sample Examples: The number of employees with MBA degrees in an organization The number of students who failed to qualify their final examination at CIITbz*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (2)++ +~ Inferential statistics The branch of statistics which is used to make inferences or judgments about a population on the basis of a sample Examples: The demand for a new Product X based on a sample conducted in Region Y The general election result based on a representative survey of voters in electoral district Zb@Statistical Data AnalysisCollecting data on the basis of surveys and questionnaires is the first step towards interpreting and utilizing the data for decision-making After data has been collected, it must be organized and analysed using various statistical tools and techniques JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (absolute distribution))"K 1KA frequency distribution (or frequency table) is a set of data which records the number of times a particular vlaue of a variable, or range of values of a variable, occurs Example: JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (relative distribution))"K 1KProportions * Proportions are the percentage of popluation elemts that succesfully fulfill some specific criteria Examples: The proportion of CIIT Management Science students who are in the evening programme The proportion of jeweller shops in Islamabad who have an annual revenue exceeding 50 million RupeesXeq+Measures of Central Tendency `The purpose of measures of central tendency is to determine the average value in a set of values There are three measures of central tendency: (Arithmetic) Mean Median ModeJ .Measures of Central Tendency(Arithmetic Mean)"/ /JThe arithmetic mean is the average of all the values under consideration >JJJ %Measures of Central Tendency(Median)"& &NThe Median is the midpoint of the distribution of values under consideration >NNN#Measures of Central Tendency(Mode)"$ $eThe Mode is the value that occurs most frequently in the distribution of values under consideration >eeeMeasures of Dispersion" Measures of dispersion provide an indication of the tendency of value to depart from their central tendency Two sets of values may have the same central tendency, but their dispersion may differ significantly See example table 17.5 on page 407 of the text book > #Measures of Dispersion(The Range)"$# $The Range is the simplest measure of dispersion of values and is defind as the distance between the smallest and the highest value (i.e. the extreme values) in a frequency distribution Refer again to table 17.5 on page 407 of your text book for an example See the deviation score (the distance of a value from the arithmetic mean, e.g. deviation score = 500 750 = - 250) The deviation score is used as the basis of computing the average deviation which is simply the summation of all deviation scores divided by the sample size. The absolute values of the deviation scores should be used \wTS&Measures of Dispersion(The Variance)"'& 'DThe variance is another very useful measure of the level of dispersion or variability in a set of values The variance is computed by squaring the deviation scores, summing them all up, and then dividing by the sample size minus one The larger the value of the variance, the larger is the distance from the arithmetic mean EED0Measures of Dispersion(The Standard Deviation):1 1The standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance and is considered a very accurate measure of variation or dispersion in a set of values The standard deviation is preferred by business researchers over the variance If the set of values is based on a sample, it is important to note that the standard deviation of the sample may differ from the standard deviation of the whole population Fieldwork (1)7The gathering of data by individuals, such as, personal or telephone interviewers and observers is, broadly speaking, referred to as fiedwork The selection of fieldworkers with adequate training and experience is essential the success of the research project A research study is only as good as the data input 8P88 Fieldwork (2)@There are organizations to whom the task of gathering data and information can be outsourced, which are refffered to as field interviewing services Such organizations gather data (e.g. through personal and telephone interviews or observation) for a fee, and they may also offer training and supervision services and selecting fieldworkers It is important for fieldworkers to have certain characteristics when gathering data, for e.g., being well-dressed and well-groomed, pleasant in disposition, outgoing, keen to interact with strangers !d!!Training FieldworkersBriefing Session (provides all interviewers with identical background information about the project Training Interview (a practice session in which an inexperienced fieldworker records answers on a questionnaire to develop his or her skills, and clarify the requirements of the research project in question) The purpose of the briefing session and training interview is to ensure that data is gathered by the fieldworkers in a uniform manner d%Major Themes in Training Fieldworkers&& &Making initial contact with the respondent and securing the interview Asking survey questions Probing Recording Responses Terminating the interview" xMaking Initial ContactPolite introduction Try to convince the person being interviewed that cooperation is important Use of ID cards Avoid using certain words which give the respondent a means of quickly ending the interview (e.g.: may I ...) Do not be too aggressiveAsking Survey QuestionsQuestions must be asked in a manner that avoids interviewer bias Asking questions must take 5 major principles into consideration, i.e.: ask the questions exactly as they are worded in the questionnaire, read each question very slowly, ask the questions in the order in which they are presented in the questionnaire, ask every question specified in the questionnaire and repeat questions that are easily misunderstood or misinterpretedPZZ/Z/ProbingProbing is about verbal prompts by the fieldworker or interviewer when the respondent must be motivated to communicate his or her answer or to enlarge on, clarify, or explain an answer Interviewers must try to ensure that answers provided by the respondents are complete and unambiguous and they must ensure that the respondent does not lose track of the questions they are asked Interviewers must ensure that they do not influence the respondents when probing (neutrality) ZRecording ResponsesAll fieldworkers should use the same procedure for recording responses In case of open-ended questions, responses should be recorded in the respondent s own words (no summarizing or paraphrasing) and should include an indication as to whether probing was required ZTerminating the InterviewInterview should not be terminated before all the information has been gathered from the respondent Hasty departure by the interviewer should be avoided because sometimes after formal interviewing, the respondents may offer valuable information. Moreover, a hasty departure is considered impolite and the respondent may have to be reinterviewed Interviewers should have the courtesy to answer questions which the respondent may have after the interview ,ZZ+Principles of Good Interviewing The Basics,, ,Integrity and honesty (for interviewers) Patience and tactfulness (in dealing with respondents) Accuracy and detail (record responses that are understood, clarify and ask respondents for detailed answers if necessary, and record answers verbatim) Impartiality (keep your opinions to yourself and remain neutral) Listen more, talk less (respondents are expected to provide the information) Maintain confidentiality and privacy (do not disclose information on respondents to anyone else) Be respectful of the rights of respondents ,ZZ7Principles of Good Interviewing Required Practices (1)88 8DComplete the number of interviews according to the assigned sampling plan Follow the directions given to you Keep your schedules Keep control of the interview (no deviation to other subjects, avoid talking too much, keep time frame in mind) Complete the questionnaires and follow the prescribed sequence in asking questions ,DssEE7Principles of Good Interviewing Required Practices (2)88 8Ask questions as they are written (no summarizing or paraphrasing) Do not leave questions blank Use all aids (props, photographs etc.) provided to the interviewer for conducting the interview Check each questionnaire (preferably immediately) after the interview has finished Check how many questionnaires were you assigned to complete with the number you actually completed Clarify any questions with the research initiator or fieldwork supervisorH K00( x c$HiP ` i x c$(=`i H 0h ? 3380___PPT10.PH K00( x c$@iP ` i x c$h=`i H 0h ? 3380___PPT10.Pr A? zdKP( /0DAriala Rew0z[ 0"DWingdingsw0z[ 0 DVerdana Refw0Design Template Slide Titlesz[ 0" B. @n?" dd@ @@`` %$&' r5/XR$1K`A8 U!R$C©f*nq!0AA wK鼹@;kʚ;ʚ;g4@d@d z[ 0Lppp<4ddddL 0w<4BdBdL< 0L0___PPT10 ___PPT9((& &?-O =n?RESEARCH METHODOLOGY(Business Research Methods)*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (1)++ + Descriptive statistics The branch of statistics which describes or summarizes information about a population or sample Examples: The number of employees with MBA degrees in an organization The number of students who failed to qualify their final examination at CIITbz*Descriptive and Inferential Statistics (2)++ +~ Inferential statistics The branch of statistics which is used to make inferences or judgments about a population on the basis of a sample Examples: The demand for a new Product X based on a sample conducted in Region Y The general election result based on a representative survey of voters in electoral district Zb@Statistical Data AnalysisCollecting data on the basis of surveys and questionnaires is the first step towards interpreting and utilizing the data for decision-making After data has been collected, it must be organized and analysed using various statistical tools and techniques JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (absolute distribution))"K 1KA frequency distribution (or frequency table) is a set of data which records the number of times a particular vlaue of a variable, or range of values of a variable, occurs Example: JStatistical Data Analysis(Frequency Distribution (relative distribution))"K 1KProportions * Proportions are the percentage of popluation elemts that succesfully fulfill some specific criteria Examples: The proportion of CIIT Management Science students who are in the evening programme The proportion of jeweller shops in Islamabad who have an annual revenue exceeding 50 million RupeesXeq+Measures of Central Tendency `The purpose of measures of central tendency is to determine the average value in a set of values There are three measures of central tendency: (Arithmetic) Mean Median ModeJ .Measures of Central Tendency(Arithmetic Mean)"/ /JThe arithmetic mean is the average of all the values under consideration >JJJ %Measures of Central Tendency(Median)"& &NThe Median is the midpoint of the distribution of values under consideration >NNN#Measures of Central Tendency(Mode)"$ $eThe Mode is the value that occurs most frequently in the distribution of values under consideration >eeeMeasures of Dispersion" Measures of dispersion provide an indication of the tendency of value to depart from their central tendency Two sets of values may have the same central tendency, but their dispersion may differ significantly See example table 17.5 on page 407 of the text book > #Measures of Dispersion(The Range)"$# $The Range is the simplest measure of dispersion of values and is defind as the distance between the smallest and the highest value (i.e. the extreme values) in a frequency distribution Refer again to table 17.5 on page 407 of your text book for an example See the deviation score (the distance of a value from the arithmetic mean, e.g. deviation score = 500 750 = - 250) The deviation score is used as the basis of computing the average deviation which is simply the summation of all deviation scores divided by the sample size. The absolute values of the deviation scores should be used \wTS&Measures of Dispersion(The Variance)"'& 'DThe variance is another very useful measure of the level of dispersion or variability in a set of values The variance is computed by squaring the deviation scores, summing them all up, and then dividing by the sample size minus one The larger the value of the variance, the larger is the distance from the arithmetic mean EED0Measures of Dispersion(The Standard Deviation):1 1The standard deviation is simply the square root of the variance and is considered a very accurate measure of variation or dispersion in a set of values The standard deviation is preferred by business researchers over the variance If the set of values is based on a sample, it is important to note that the standard deviation of the sample may differ from the standard deviation of the whole population Fieldwork (1)7The gathering of data by individuals, such as, personal or telephone interviewers and observers is, broadly speaking, referred to as fiedwork The selection of fieldworkers with adequate training and experience is essential the success of the research project A research study is only as good as the data input 8P88 Fieldwork (2)@There are organizations to whom the task of gathering data and information can be outsourced, which are refffered to as field interviewing services Such organizations gather data (e.g. through personal and telephone interviews or observation) for a fee, and they may also offer training and supervision services and selecting fieldworkers It is important for fieldworkers to have certain characteristics when gathering data, for e.g., being well-dressed and well-groomed, pleasant in disposition, outgoing, keen to interact with strangers !d!!Training FieldworkersBriefing Session (provides all interviewers with identical background information about the project Training Interview (a practice session in which an inexperienced fieldworker records answers on a questionnaire to develop his or her skills, and clarify the requirements of the research project in question) The purpose of the briefing session and training interview is to ensure that data is gathered by the fieldworkers in a uniform manner d%Major Themes in Training Fieldworkers&& &Making initial contact with the respondent and securing the interview Asking survey questions Probing Recording Responses Terminating the interview" xMaking Initial ContactPolite introduction Try to convince the person being interviewed that cooperation is important Use of ID cards Avoid using certain words which give the respondent a means of quickly ending the interview (e.g.: may I ...) Do not be too aggressiveAsking Survey QuestionsQuestions must be asked in a manner that avoids interviewer bias Asking questions must take 5 major principles into consideration, i.e.: ask the questions exactly as they are worded in the questionnaire, read each question very slowly, ask the questions in the order in which they are presented in the questionnaire, ask every question specified in the questionnaire and repeat questions that are easily misunderstood or misinterpretedPZZ/Z/ProbingProbing is about verbal prompts by the fieldworker or interviewer when the respondent must be motivated to communicate his or her answer or to enlarge on, clarify, or explain an answer Interviewers must try to ensure that answers provided by the respondents are complete and unambiguous and they must ensure that the respondent does not lose track of the questions they are asked Interviewers must ensure that they do not influence the respondents when probing (neutrality) ZRecording ResponsesAll fieldworkers should use the same procedure for recording responses In case of open-ended questions, responses should be recorded in the respondent s own words (no summarizing or paraphrasing) and should include an indication as to whether probing was required ZTerminating the InterviewInterview should not be terminated before all the information has been gathered from the respondent Hasty departure by the interviewer should be avoided because sometimes after formal interviewing, the respondents may offer valuable information. Moreover, a hasty departure is considered impolite and the respondent may have to be reinterviewed Interviewers should have the courtesy to answer questions which the respondent may have after the interview ,ZZ+Principles of Good Interviewing The Basics,, ,Integrity and honesty (for interviewers) Patience and tactfulness (in dealing with respondents) Accuracy and detail (record responses that are understood, clarify and ask respondents for detailed answers if necessary, and record answers verbatim) Impartiality (keep your opinions to yourself and remain neutral) Listen more, talk less (respondents are expected to provide the information) Maintain confidentiality and privacy (do not disclose information on respondents to anyone else) Be respectful of the rights of respondents ,ZZ7Principles of Good Interviewing Required Practices (1)88 8DComplete the number of interviews according to the assigned sampling plan Follow the directions given to you Keep your schedules Keep control of the interview (no deviation to other subjects, avoid talking too much, keep time frame in mind) Complete the questionnaires and follow the prescribed sequence in asking questions ,DssEE7Principles of Good Interviewing Required Practices (2)88 8Ask questions as they are written (no summarizing or paraphrasing) Do not leave questions blank Use all aids (props, photographs etc.) provided to the interviewer for conducting the interview Check each questionnaire (preferably immediately) after the interview has finished Check how many questionnaires were you assigned to complete with the number you actually completed Clarify any questions with the research initiator or fieldwork supervisorr? $Qd